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This article is about the region in the Netherlands, not that state itself. For the state of the Netherlands as a whole, see Netherlands place in Netherlands
Holland is a geographic region [ 2 ] and early state on the westerly coast of the Netherlands. [ 2 ] The name Holland is besides frequently used colloquially to refer to the whole of the area of the Netherlands. [ 2 ] This custom is normally accepted in early countries and is besides normally employed by the Dutch themselves. [ 3 ] however, some in the Netherlands, particularly those from regions outside Holland, find it undesirable or misrepresentative to use the terminus for the hale area. [ 4 ]
From the 10th to the sixteenth century, Holland proper was a unite political region within the Holy Roman Empire as a county ruled by the counts of Holland. By the seventeenth century, the province of Holland had risen to become a nautical and economic power, dominating the other provinces of the newly mugwump Dutch Republic. The area of the early County of Holland roughly coincides with the two current Dutch provinces of North Holland and South Holland into which it was divided, and which together include the Netherlands ‘ three largest cities : the capital city of Amsterdam ; Rotterdam, home plate of Europe ‘s largest port ; and the induct of government of The Hague. Holland has a population of 6,583,534 as of November 2019, [ 1 ] and a density of 1,203/km2 ( 3,120/sq mile ) .
etymology and terminology [edit ]
The name Holland first appeared in sources for the region around Haarlem, and by 1064 was being used as the name of the integral county. By the early twelfth century, the inhabitants of Holland were called Hollandi in a Latin text. [ 5 ] Holland is derived from the Old Dutch term holtlant ( “ wood-land ” ). [ 6 ] This spelling mutant remained in function until around the fourteenth century, at which fourth dimension the mention stabilised as Holland ( option spellings at the time were Hollant and Hollandt ). A popular but erroneous folk etymology holds that Holland is derived from hol land ( “ hollow down ” in Dutch ) purportedly inspired by the low-lying geography of the bring. [ 6 ] “ netherlands ” is colloquially used in English and other languages, including sometimes the dutch speech itself, to mean the whole of the modern state of the Netherlands. [ 4 ] This exemplar of pars pro toto or synecdoche is exchangeable to the tendency to refer to the United Kingdom as “ England ”, [ 7 ] [ 8 ] and developed due to Holland ‘s becoming the dominant state and thus having the majority of political and economic interactions with other countries. [ 9 ] between 1806 and 1810 “ Holland ” was the official name for the county as a wholly, after Napoleon made his brother Louis Bonaparte the sovereign of the Kingdom of Holland. The people of Holland are referred to as “ Hollanders ” in both Dutch and English, though in English this is immediately strange. today this refers specifically to people from the current provinces of North Holland and South Holland. strictly speaking, the terminus “ Hollanders ” does not refer to people from the other provinces in the Netherlands, but colloquially “ Hollanders ” is sometimes used in this wide sense. In Dutch, the Dutch word “ Hollands “ is the adjectival phase for “ Holland “. The Dutch word “ Hollands “ is besides colloquially used by some dutch people in the feel of “ Nederlands “ ( Dutch ), occasionally with the intention of contrasting with other types of dutch people or terminology, for exercise Limburgish, the belgian varieties of the dutch linguistic process ( “ Flemish “ ), or even any southerly assortment of Dutch within the Netherlands itself. In English, “ dutch ” refers to the Netherlands as a whole, but there is no normally used adjective for “ Holland ”. The password “ Hollandish ” is no longer in common use. “ Hollandic “ is the name linguists give to the dialect spoken in Holland, and is occasionally besides used by historians and when referring to pre-Napoleonic Holland .
history [edit ]
initially, Holland was a distant corner of the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, its regional importance increased until it began to have a decisive, and ultimately dominant, influence on the History of the Netherlands .
County of Holland [edit ]
Until the startle of the twelfth century, the inhabitants of the area that became Holland were known as Frisians. The area was initially part of Frisia. At the end of the ninth century, West-Frisia became a discriminate county in the Holy Roman Empire. The first Count known about with certainty was Dirk I, who ruled from 896 to 931. He was succeeded by a retentive trace of counts in the House of Holland ( who were in fact known as counts of Frisia until 1101 ). When John I died childless in 1299, the county was inherited by Count John II of Hainaut. By the meter of William V ( House of Wittelsbach ; 1354–1388 ) the count of Holland was besides the count of Hainaut and Zealand. After the St. Lucia ‘s flood in 1287 the part of Frisia west of the later Zuiderzee, West Friesland, was conquered. As a consequence, most provincial institutions, including the States of Holland and West Frisia, would for more than five centuries refer to “ Holland and West Frisia ” as a unit. The Hook and Cod wars started around this time and ended when the count of Holland, Jacoba or Jacqueline was forced to cede Holland to the Burgundian Philip III, known as Philip the Good, in 1432. In 1432, Holland became character of the Burgundian Netherlands and since 1477 of the Habsburg Seventeen Provinces. In the sixteenth century the county became the most densely urbanized area in Europe, with the majority of the population living in cities. Within the Burgundian Netherlands, Holland was the prevailing state in the north ; the political influence of Holland largely determined the extent of Burgundian dominion in that area. The final consider of Holland was Philip III, better known as Philip II, king of Spain. He was deposed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, although the kings of Spain continued to carry the nominal appellation of Count of Holland until the Peace of Münster signed in 1648 .
Dutch Republic [edit ]
A map of Holland from 1682 In the dutch Rebellion against the Habsburgs during the Eighty Years ‘ War, the naval forces of the rebels, the Watergeuzen, established their first permanent infrastructure in 1572 in the town of Brill. In this means, Holland, now a sovereign country in a larger dutch alliance, became the kernel of the rebellion. It became the cultural, political and economic center of the United Provinces ( Dutch : Verenigde Provinciën ), in the seventeenth century, the Dutch Golden Age, the wealthiest state in the earth. After the King of Spain was deposed as the count of Holland, the executive and legislative power rested with the States of Holland, which was led by a political figure who held the position of Grand Pensionary. The largest cities in the Dutch Republic were in the province of Holland, such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Leiden, Alkmaar, The Hague, Delft, Dordrecht and Haarlem. From the great ports of Holland, Hollandic merchants sailed to and from destinations all over Europe, and merchants from all over Europe gathered to trade in the warehouses of Amsterdam and other deal cities of Holland. many Europeans think of the United Provinces first as Holland rather than as the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands. A strong depression of Holland was planted in the minds of other Europeans, which then was projected back onto the Republic as a hale. Within the provinces themselves, a gradual slow action of cultural expansion took stead, leading to a “ Hollandification ” of the early provinces and a more consistent culture for the whole of the Republic. The dialect of urban Holland became the standard language .
Under french convention [edit ]
Departments of French Empire North 1811 The constitution of the Batavian Republic, inspired by the french rotation, led to a more centralize government. Holland became a state of a one state. Its independence was further reduced by an administrative reform in 1798, in which its district was divided into several departments called Amstel, Delf, Texel, and part of Schelde en Maas. From 1806 to 1810 Napoleon styled his vassal state of matter, governed by his brother Louis Napoleon and concisely by the son of Louis, Napoleon Louis Bonaparte, as the “ Kingdom of Holland “. This kingdom encompassed much of what would become the modern Netherlands. The mention reflects how natural at the time it had become to equate Holland with the non-Belgian Netherlands as a wholly. [ 10 ] During the menstruation when the low Countries were annexed by the french Empire and actually incorporated into France ( from 1810 to 1813 ), Holland was divided into départements Zuyderzée, and Bouches-de-la-Meuse. From 1811 to 1813 Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance served as governor-general. He was assisted by Antoine de Celles, Goswin de Stassart and François Jean-Baptiste d’Alphonse. [ 11 ] In 1813, Dutch dignitaries proclaimed the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands .
Kingdom of the Netherlands [edit ]
In 1815, Holland was restored as a state of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Holland was divided into the deliver provinces North Holland and South Holland in 1840, after the belgian Revolution of 1830. This reflected a historic division of Holland along the IJ into a southerly Quarter ( Zuiderkwartier ) and a Northern Quarter ( Noorderkwartier ), [ 12 ] but the present class is different from the old division. From 1850, a strong action of state formation took place, the Netherlands being culturally unified and economically integrated by a modernization summons, with the cities of Holland as its center. [ 13 ]
geography [edit ]
North Holland South Holland Holland is located in the west of the Netherlands. A maritime region, Holland lies on the North Sea at the mouths of the Rhine and the Meuse ( Maas ). It contains numerous rivers and lakes, and has an extensive inland duct and waterway system. To the south is Zealand. The region is bordered on the east by the IJsselmeer and four dutch provinces. Holland is protected from the ocean by a long line of coastal dunes. The highest compass point in Holland, about 55 metres ( 180 foot ) above sea level, [ 14 ] is in the Schoorlse Duinen [ nl ] ( Schoorl Dunes ). Most of the land area behind the dunes consists of polder landscape lying well below sea grade. At salute the lowest compass point in Holland is a polder near Rotterdam, which is about 7 metres ( 23 foot ) below sea level. continuous drain is necessary to keep Holland from flooding. In earlier centuries windmills were used for this job. The landscape was ( and in places even is ) dotted with windmills, which have become a symbol of Holland. Holland is 7,494 square kilometres ( 2,893 square miles ), land and water included, making it roughly 13 % of the area of the Netherlands. Looking at land alone, it is 5,488 square kilometres ( 2,119 public square miles ) in area. The compound population was 6.5 million in 2018. [ 15 ] The main cities in Holland are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague. Amsterdam is formally the capital of the Netherlands and its largest city. The Port of Rotterdam is Europe ‘s largest and most important harbor and interface. The Hague is the seat of government of the Netherlands. These cities, combined with Utrecht and other smaller municipalities, efficaciously form a unmarried metroplex —a conurbation called Randstad. The Randstad area is one of the most densely populate regions of Europe, but still relatively loose of urban sprawl. There are rigid zoning laws. population pressures are enormous, property values are eminent, and newly housing is constantly under development on the edges of the built-up areas. surprisingly, much of the state silent has a rural fictional character. The remaining agricultural land and natural areas are highly valued and protected. Most of the arable land is used for intensive agribusiness, including gardening and greenhouse agri-businesses .
reclamation of the kingdom [edit ]
Benthuizen polder, as seen from a dike The farming that is now Holland has not been “ stable ” since prehistoric times. The western coastline shifted astir to 30 kilometres ( 19 miles ) to the east and storm surges regularly broke through the quarrel of coastal dunes. The frisian Isles, primitively joined to the mainland, became detached islands in the union. The chief rivers, the Rhine and the Meuse ( Maas ), flooded regularly and changed course repeatedly and dramatically. The people of Holland found themselves living in an unstable, watery environment. Behind the dunes on the coast of the Netherlands a high peat tableland had grown, forming a natural protective covering against the sea. much of the area was marsh and bog down. By the tenth century the inhabitants set about cultivating this kingdom by draining it. however, the drain resulted in extreme territory shrinking, lowering the come on of the state by up to 15 metres ( 49 feet ). To the confederacy of Holland, in Zeeland, and to the north, in Frisia, this development led to catastrophic storm floods literally washing away integral regions, as the peat layer disintegrated or became detached and was carried aside by the flood urine. From the frisian slope the ocean even flooded the area to the east, gradually hollowing Holland out from behind and forming the Zuiderzee ( the present IJsselmeer ). This inland sea threatened to link up with the “ drown lands ” of Zealand in the south, reducing Holland to a series of narrow-minded dune barrier islands in front of a lagoon. only drastic administrative interposition saved the county from dead destruction. The counts and large monasteries took the contribute in these efforts, building the beginning heavy hand brake dikes to bolster critical points. Later special autonomous administrative bodies were formed, the waterschappen ( “ urine restraint boards ” ), which had the legal power to enforce their regulations and decisions on water management. They finally constructed an extensive dam system that covered the coastline and the polders, thus protecting the state from further incursions by the sea. however, the Hollanders did not stop there. Starting around the sixteenth century, they took the offensive and began land reclamation projects, converting lakes, boggy areas and adjoining mudflats into polders. This continued well into the twentieth hundred. As a consequence, historic maps of medieval and early advanced Holland wear little resemblance to present maps. This ongoing contend to master the water played an crucial function in the development of Holland as a maritime and economic power, and has traditionally been seen as developing the presume collective character of its inhabitants : refractory, classless and economical .
economy [edit ]
The arrant domestic product ( GDP ) of the area was €330.746 billion ( US $ 370B ) in 2019. [ 16 ]
culture [edit ]
The stereotyped double of Holland is an artificial amalgam of tulips, windmills, clogs, Edam cheese and the traditional trim ( klederdracht ) of the village of Volendam, far from the world of everyday Holland. These stereotypes were intentionally created in the deep nineteenth hundred by official “ Holland Promotion ” to attract tourists. The predominance of Holland in the Netherlands has resulted in regionalism on the function of the early provinces, a reaction to the perceived threat that Holland poses to their local culture and identity. The other provinces have a strong, and frequently veto, [ 17 ] image of Holland and the Hollanders, to whom certain qualities are ascribed within a mental geography, a conceptual map of spaces and their inhabitants. [ 18 ] On the other hand, some Hollanders take Holland ‘s cultural laterality for granted and treat the concepts of “ Holland ” and “ the Netherlands ” as concur. consequently, they see themselves not chiefly as Hollanders, but plainly as Dutch ( Nederlanders ). [ 19 ] This phenomenon has been called “ hollandocentrism ”. [ 20 ]
Languages [edit ]
The prevailing lyric spoken in Holland is Dutch. Hollanders sometimes call the dutch linguistic process “ Hollands, “ [ 21 ] alternatively of the standard term Nederlands. Inhabitants of Belgium and other provinces of the Netherlands habit “ Hollands ” to mean a Hollandic dialect or potent stress. Standard Dutch was historically largely based on the dialect of the County of Holland, incorporating many traits derived from the dialects of the previously more brawny Duchy of Brabant and County of Flanders. Strong dialectal mutant still exists throughout the low Countries. nowadays, Holland proper is the region where the original dialects are least spoken, in many areas having been wholly replaced by standard Dutch, and the Randstad has the largest influence on the developments of the standard language—with the exception of the Dutch spoken in Belgium. [ 22 ] Despite this correspondence between standard Dutch and the Dutch speak in the Randstad, there are local anesthetic variations within Holland itself that differ from standard Dutch. The main cities each have their own modern urban dialect, that can be considered a sociolect. [ 23 ] Some people, particularly in the sphere north of Amsterdam, still speak the original dialect of the county, Hollandic. This dialect is present in the north : Volendam and Marken and the area around there, West Friesland and the Zaanstreek ; and in a southeast fringe bordering the provinces of North Brabant and Utrecht. In the south on the island of Goeree-Overflakkee, Zeelandic is spoken. [ 24 ]
bequest [edit ]
New Holland [edit ]
The province of Holland gave its name to a count of colonial settlements and discovered regions that were called Nieuw Holland or New Holland. The largest was the island continent presently known as Australia : [ 2 ] New Holland was first base applied to Australia in 1644 by the dutch mariner Dirk Hartog as a Latin Nova Hollandia, and remained in international habit for 190 years. After its discovery by the dutch internet explorer Abel Tasman, New Zealand was alike named after the dutch state of Zealand. In the Netherlands Nieuw Holland would remain the common name of the continent until the end of the nineteenth century ; it is now nobelium longer in use there, the Dutch name today being Australië .
As contemporary exonym for the Netherlands [edit ]
While “ Holland ” has been replaced in English as the official diagnose for the country of the Netherlands, many other languages use it or a version of it to formally refer to the Netherlands. This is the case in Southeast Asia peculiarly Indonesia and Malaysia, for case :
- Acehnese: Blanda
- Banjar: Walanda
- Banyumasan: Landa
- Javanese: Walanda
- Malay (including Indonesian and Malaysian standards): Belanda
- Minangkabau: Balando
References [edit ]
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